The split busk, or two part busk, was invented by the Victorians. It was at the time a revolution for women because for the first time they were able to put their corsets on un-assisted. There are many types of split busk. The regular 'flexible' busk which is the most widely used and the one with which people are most familiar. These are about 12mm wide on either side, and coated in a white powder coating - this white powder coating, as a matter of interest, has replaced the older plastic coating, as it is more environmentally friendly. In Victorian times of course, all busks were made of uncoated steel.
The other types of busk are variously made from galvanised steel or stainless steel. There are wide busks which are an inch wide on either side, conical or tapered busks which are true to the Edwardian period and Spoon Busks which are true to the Victorian period. In modern corsetry, different types of busks can be used for different purposes depending upon design, body type, and effect
I find the story of the fabric known as bobbinet quite fascinating. Like coutil it is a very rare, difficult to find material and it is only made by a very few factories in the world. Like coutil there is a certain 'snobbishness' tied to it when put into the context of couture and fashion. You must have 'genuine' bobbinet and it must be made of the right stuff and in the right way.
Luckily, here at Sew Curvy we have genuine bobbinet, manufactured by one of the UK's only remaining factories and even more luckily, because I was able to get a narrower (but no less useful) width, the cost per metre is extremely competitive - the best you'll find anywhere on the net I think (haha! pun intended!)!
Bobbinet is a very special tulle fabric - sometimes even known as 'genuine tulle' it has been around since 1806 when it was invented by a very clever man called John Heathcoate. Mr Heathcoate coined the term 'bobbinet' from two words, 'bobbin' and 'net' because it is a lace type net fabric - lace is made with bobbins - but made on a machine which he also invented. Modern lace is made on similar machines and these days, the design for bobbinet machines, like many Victorian inventions, is largely unchanged from the original Heathcoate design.
The structure of bobbinet tulle is hexaganol and this is what makes it so strong and durable.
Bobbinet tulle is constructed from warp and weft yarns, but unlike regular woven fabrics and nets, the horizontal weft yarn is looped diagonally around the vertical warp yarn to form a regular and distinctive hexagonal mesh which is completely stable, has minimal stretch and is durable, sheer and very very strong in comparison to it's weight. This is why it is ideal for foundation garments within dresses and has been favoured by designers since the early 20th century for supporting haute couture gowns. It is the hexagonal mesh which makes the difference here, without the hexagons, it's not bobbinet.
Bobbinet was originally made from cotton, and it is now available in many different fibres including silk, nylon and special 'technical' fabrics. The threads of bobbinet can be coated in all sorts of non fabricy things including metal and this makes it's range of use outside the fashion industry quite vast! It is used for theatre back drops, military applications, medical patches, parachutes, cryogenic insulation, electromagnetic shielding, flexible electronics, fishing nets, high quality wig making and a whole other raft of 'craft' applications including porcelain statue decoration - who knew!!??
Dior dress foundation with bobbinete corselette
In fashion, which is what we're interested in of course, bobbinet mesh is still used for couture style dressmaking including bridal wear, corsetry and lingerie or as a base cloth for fine embrodery. In the world of costume, bobbinet is used in wig making because it is fine, strong, and more or less invisible when hair is woven through it.
Balmain gown inside and out, with bobbinet corselette foundation
What to use bobbinet for? I would use it for dress foundations (sometimes called a built in corselete), and I am intending to try it out in light corsetry or as a stand alone corselete. You can use bobbinet for petticoats but if I were to make a floaty tulle petticoat I would use a more standard silk tulle - not a specialist silk bobbinet. Why? Because regular silk tulle is much less expensive than silk bobbinet and just as effective, it also comes in a wider range of colours. The point of using bobbinet in dressmaking is for strength and lighness to create something fine and elegant. Bobbinet is not really a fabric to be used for it's looks in any application.
Anatomy of a gown by Morua Designs - see how bobbinet is used to create a dress foundation, this is one of my favourite ever posts on the internet. Very inspirational.
A post from Gerties Blog for Better Sewing regarding bobbinet corselettes in haute couture dress foundations. I actually disagree that underwear should be worn in a dress with a foundation - a properly constructed couture dress foundation negates the requirement for separate underwear.
Interesting post by Alison of Crikey Aphrodite on the OCOC blog about a lace factory in Scotland. Lace is mounted on net and these machines are very similar to dedicated bobbinet machines. A very interesting article with a nice video.
Coutil is a fabric which was especially invented for corsetry back in the 1800's. It was also known, at that time, as "Jean". It is commonly a herringbone weave but it also comes in other forms. The reason coutil is special is because it is a very densly woven fabric which makes it very strong and durable - able to stand up to tension, but can be very smooth and luxurious.
Coutil fabric for corsetry comes in several different 'weights', and also different compositions. The best coutil is 100% cotton or at least a cotton/viscose mix (though some people are allergic to viscose). You can get polyester coutil or polycotton coutil. I do not recommend those as they do not 'breathe' as well as natural fabrics. There is a bit of a myth that the best coutil comes from England. This certainly used to be the case, however, I am sad to report that there are no coutil mills left in England. All coutil is made abroad nowadays, some in India, some in China, and some in Europe. I believe that some coutil is made in America too, although we in the UK do not tend to import from there and many American corset makers prefer the European coutil. You may have heard of 'German coutil'. It is important to use coutil for many reasons. Not only is it the best material to make corsets from, and incomparable to other 'strong' fabrics, but it is also a dying industry. It is expensive because it is a good quality fabric, and we must support the production of coutil, to keep the few mills that are left in Europe open. Many industries use coutil, however, most corsetry components are not made for small production or for fashion, but for the medical industry.
Broche coutil is the heaviest type of coutil available from Sew Curvy, alongside the cotton sateen coutil which I also stock - it's basically the broche without the viscose design. Fine herringbone coutil is the closes substitute to genuine antique coutil and is quite common in Edwardian corsetry. It is very fine but deceptivly strong and therefore suitable for lighter single layer corsets or training corsets - smooth, light and dense. Perfect!
Metal corsetry boning was invented in the 1800's by the Victorians when their preferred corset boning of choice, whalebone, was becoming scarce and expensive. The Victorians came up with two types of boning - both with ingenious features for very specific applications in corsetry and both of which are still in use today with no modern adaptation or equal.
A bone holder for keeping your corset/dress bones sorted. Made by Izabela of Prior Attire these will soon be available to buy in the Sew Curvy shop
First of all there is flat steel boning, sometimes known as 'corset flats' or 'spring steel'. There is a reason for this. Flat steel boning isn't made of any old metal - No. It is made from sprung steel which means that it is naturally very 'bouncy' and it is very very hard to bend. Try bending sprung steel and it will bounce right back into flatness. Why is this best for curvy corsetry? Because the way a corset works is by creating pressure and tension over the body to create the special hourglass shape that the Victorians and Edwardians favoured. If you didn't have sprung steel as boning, then the metal rods inside the corset would simply bend and buckle and would not hold a thing in place. Can you imagine how uncomfortable that would be and how awful it would look? Sprung steel on the other hand, only flexes in a vertical direction and will keep its shape and provide tension in the right places - as your corset pattern dictates - and because of this, you can use flat steel corset boning to help engineer your final outcome. For example, if you want to control a larger bust, or if you want to enhance a smaller bust, flat steel boning can be used in strategic places at the side of the bust to help acheive the desired effect by holding your assets firmly in place and pushing the flesh in a certain direction, unlike spiral steel boning which is much more flexible and will simply mould over curves.
I do not ever recommend pre-bending flat corset bones because doing this removes the tension in the steel which negates it's special properties. If you feel like you want to create very curvy drama or you are boning a corset with a very small waist, then use spiral steel boning instead - it will do the bending for you.
Flat steel boning is also used in hooped petticoats, steel dress cages and panniers and is also sprung so that it keeps it's nice round shape but it is not so thick as flat steel corset boning.
The Elliptical cage crinoline was the main support foundation for the later- and post-American Civil War period of 1863-1868. Called a "cage" because of the cage-like appearance created by the hoop wires and vertical support tapes, this type of crinoline offers maximum support capabilities for a perfect shape, combined with flexibility for comfortable wear
Spiral steel boning is very different to flat sprung steel boning. It is made from 2 springs flattened and then forced together to make one flat looking spring.
This type of corset boning is also sprung and is ingenious because it flexes in all directions and is therefore particularly good for the more curvy areas of the body, where you need a bit of moulding - over the breast, over the hips, perhaps over a fuller dierriere. Spiral steel boning is much 'softer' on the body and therefore wearers find it more comfortable. Where flat boning can be used to control and streamline, spiral boning can be used to enhance and create drama. Spiral steel is the most versatile type of corset boning, it comes in different widths and different thicknesses for all sorts of boning projects and ofcourse it isn't just used for corsetry, it is used in couture for boning dress foundations properly.
An antique corset from the famous Symington Collection - this corset is German and dates from 1903. It is made from grey coutil and has exposed 'watch spring' spiral steels which were removable to aid laundering.
In summary, boning can be used in many ways and many combinations. Sometimes it can even be used to even out an asymetry in the body. No body is the same, and it follows that no handmade custom or bespoke corset will be the same as another in terms of how it is boned, however each individual maker will have his or her preferred way of using the bones and this in turn will contribute to the over all look, feel and style of that maker.
The inside of a couture dress foundation from the Fashion Gallery at Snibston Discovery Centre, Leicestershire. (by kind permission). Dress foundations should be boned with metal boning as plastic boning corrupts over time and simply does not stand up to the job.
I therefore encourage everyone to experiment with boning and have put very precise descriptions in my product listings.
Here are some further resources for corset boning: